Key Terms

Accommodating style of conflict management shows low importance of your goals and high importance of your relationship, is often viewed as passive or submissive, in that someone complies with or obliges another without providing personal input.

Action-oriented listeners prefer well-organized, precise, and accurate information.

Agender describes an individual who may have no gender or describe themselves as having a neutral gender.

Amygdala Hijacking where you can no longer access the prefrontal cortex, this is the part of the brain that regulates empathy, decision making, problem solving, and much more.

Amygdala is an important part in regulating emotions and behaviors and is typically talked about as the place where out “Fight, Flight, or Freeze” responses live.

Autonomy is our sense of control over events that impact our future.

Avoiding style of conflict management shows low importance of your goals and your relationship, and no direct communication about the conflict takes place.

Bigender describes an individual who identifies as two genders.

Certainty is our sense of clarity to predict future outcomes.

Cisgender describes someone with a gender that matches their biological sex.

Collaborating style of conflict management that shows high importance of your goal and your relationship and usually indicates investment in the conflict and/or relationship.

Competing style of conflict management shows high importance for your goals and low importance for your relationship, in which one party attempts to win by gaining concessions or consent from another.

Compromising style of conflict management shows moderate important of your goals and your relationship and may indicate there is a low investment in the conflict and/or the relationship.

Conflict interactions in which there are real or perceived incompatible goals, scare resources, or opposing viewpoints. occurs in interactions where there are real or perceived incompatible goals, scarce resources, or opposing viewpoints.

Content-oriented listeners are analytic and enjoy processing complex messages.

Critical listening is listening with the goal of analyzing or evaluating a message based on information presented verbally and information that can be inferred from context.

Developmental intergroup theory postulates that adults’ heavy focus on gender leads children to pay attention to gender as a key source of information about themselves and others, to seek out any possible gender differences, and to form rigid stereotypes based on gender that are subsequently difficult to change.

Discriminative listening is a focused and usually instrumental type of listening that is primarily physiological and occurs mostly at the receiving stage of the listening process, this is where we distinguish between and focus on specific sounds.

Empathetic listening is the occurs when we try to understand or experience what a speaker is thinking or feeling.

External attributions connect the cause of behaviors to situational factors.

Face Goals the ability to uphold one’s self-image in a social setting.

Fairness is our sense of non-biased and just treatment between people.

False consensus error is the tendency to overestimate how similar we are to other people.

Framing is the act of intentionally setting the stage for the conversation you want to have.

Fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to explain others’ behaviors using internal rather than external attributions.

Gender binary is viewing a person is either male or female and assuming that a person’s gender matches their biological sex.

Gender identity refers to their psychological sense of being male or female.

Gender refers to the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity.

Gender roles are the behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture.

Gender stereotypes are the beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of men and women.

Genderfluid describes an individual who may identify as male, female, both, or neither at different times and in different circumstances.

Genderqueer or gender nonbinary are umbrella terms used to describe a wide range of individuals who do not identify with and/or conform to the gender binary.

Halo effect is when initial positive perceptions lead us to view later interactions as positive.

Horn effect is when initial negative perceptions lead us to view later interactions as negative.

Inattentional blindness the failure to notice a fully visible, but unexpected, object or event when attention is devoted to something else.

Inattentional deafness the auditory analog of inattentional blindness. People fail to notice an unexpected sound or voice when attention is devoted to other aspects of a scene.

Informational listening is listening with the goal of comprehending and retaining information.

Internal attributions connect the cause of behaviors to personal aspects such as personality traits.

Limbic system scans the environment for threats or rewards.

Listenable messages are messages that are tailored to be comprehended by the listener.

Nonverbal communication is the process of conveying a message without the use of words.

People-oriented listeners are concerned about the needs and feelings of others and may get distracted from a specific task or the content of a message in order to address feelings.

Process Goals the ability to have events and processes unfold in a certain way (includes decision making and how/when communication happens).

Reframing happens when things get off track and you need to bring a conversation back on topic.

Relatedness is our sense of connection with others in our groups.

Relationship Goals are the ability to relation to the people around you in the way you want to.

Schemata are sets of information based on cognitive and experiential knowledge that guide our interaction.

Selective distortion is a tendency to adapt information that conflicts with our earlier impressions in order to make it fit within the frame we have established.

Selective perception simply means that we pay selective attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts.

Self-effacement bias (or modesty bias) is the tendency to underestimate our performance and capabilities and to see events in a way that puts ourselves in a more negative light.

Self-enhancement bias is the tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us.

Self-fulfilling prophecies are thought and action patterns in which a person’s false belief triggers a behavior that makes the initial false belief actually or seemingly come true.

Self-serving bias refers to our tendency to have situations works out in our favor.

Sex refers to the biological category of male or female, as defined by physical differences in genetic composition and in reproductive anatomy and function.

Sexual orientation is the direction of their emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex, the same sex, or both sexes.

Social categorization is the act of mentally classifying someone as belonging in a group.

Status is the sense of respect and importance we have in relation to others.

Stereotypes are generalizations based on a group characteristic.

Substantive Goals are the ability to secure tangible resources and/or something measurable/visible.

Time-oriented listeners are concerned with completing tasks and achieving goals.

Transgender describes someone with a gender that does not match their biological sex.

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